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No.29


2014.07

APWINC NEWS

Latest News

Ecuador has successfully completed their Training of Trainers (TOT) in July for three days. The beneficiaries of TOT were able to obtain knowledge of basic economics, entrepreneurship, and ICT skills. Throughout the TOT, the trainees were able to equipped themselves to train the local women in the Training Replica and some of the trainees from the TOT will become trainers in the Training Replica in August.

Upcoming News

Colombia and Ecuador will continue their Training Replica in August. From the Training Replica, it can be expected for the partnered countries to empower the local women's capacity by participating in e-business. Also the researchers at APWINC will visit Peru, Colombia and Ecuador with a purpose of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) meeting in August.

GLOBAL NEWS

Reports & Papers

Gener&ICT
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TOPICGender Issues in ICT Adoption: A Literature Review
AUTHOR(S)T. S. Goldhaber, P. M. Langdon and P. J. Clarkson
PUBLISHER/DATEInclusive Designing, 2014
SUMMARY This paper examines the importance of gender in respects to ICT adoption, education, and usage within older adult populations. Older adults display a large discrepancy based on gender in how they learn and adapt technologies but in studies they are often lumped together without regards to these differences. Part of this discrepancy stems from the theory that women have shown through studies to have less self-efficacy, higher risk aversion, and lower ego utility than men, preventing them from having the confidence or will to pursue certain challenges such as ICT. For example, women tend to see ability as static and innate, while men tend to see ability as flexible and evolving due to effort. Although these attitudes are indeed shifting across generation and cultural lines, ICT initiatives for older adults must take these differences into account in order to have successful ICT adoption by the female older adult population. Thus, the authors suggest that ICT programs aimed at older adults must take these learning differences between men and women into account for successful ICT adaption. Read More
TOPICGender Differences and Communication Technology Use Among Emerging Adults in he Initiation of Dating Relationships
AUTHOR(S)Damon L. Rappleyea, Alan C. Taylor, and Xiangming Fang
PUBLISHER/DATEMarriage & Family Review, April 1, 2014
SUMMARY While many studies agree upon the increasingly prevalent usage of ICTs in young adults lives, few studies have looked at the affect ICTs have upon relationship beginnings and maintenance within this group. This study examined the use of communicative technologies in regards to the beginning and maintenance of a relationship. Using a sample of 1,001 young adults from 18–25, the data showed the communicative technologies such as SNS or texting are used largely during the relationship initiation process but in-person conversations and connections are still what primarily drive relationships today. They found that males were more likely to use computer technologies while females primarily used their cellphone as their source of communication and to initiate relationships, however most of those surveyed in the sample would not see technological communication as a sign of a relationship becoming ‘official'. Despite the large emphasis on technology in this demographic, the study found that relationships were still not complete affected or changed from their prevalent use.Read More

ODA
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TOPICA ‘post-aid world'? Paradigm shift in foreign aid and development cooperation at the 2011 Busan High Level Forum
AUTHOR(S)Emma Mawdsley, Laura Savage, and Sung-mi Kim
PUBLISHER/DATEThe Geographical Journal, March 2014
SUMMARY This paper analyzes a possible shift from 2011-2012 onwards in regards to the construction and power dynamics of overseas development aid (ODA). By summarizing their observations of the 2011 Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness held in Busan, Korea, Mawdsley, Savage, and Kim compare its ‘successes' and ‘failures' to the other three forums that had been held since 2003. The authors note that while development aid policy has drastically changed from economic-focused aid to rights-focused aid, there was little actual attention to the more controversial aspects of ODA, namely the precautious donor-recipient relationship, the cultural norms that define these relationships, and the application of universal measurements of development progress to vastly different countries and situations. The conference was also hailed to include a rights-based agenda, yet the overall tone of the conference did not reflect this. However, while the Busan conference did not adequately address these issues, its attempted inclusion of rogue donors such as China, India, and Brazil, as well as the symbolic location of South Korea could signify that ODA is becoming less Western-led (both in aid and theory) and that ODA will become economic growth-based in part due to the immense development success of South Korea. In addition, from the forum emerged two major aid policies; a general increased commitment to transparency and the New Deal for fragile states, which aims for greater peace-building and state-building to occur. The paper concludes that while the development aid field is currently uncertain, the ‘emblematic shift' to building partnerships between donor-receipient countries and looking at development investment as a way to enhance productivity rather than poverty reduction as demonstrated by this forum could indicate where development aid might transform next.Read More
TOPICThe EU's Migration and Development Policy: New Approaches in Economics for More Effective Public Aid
AUTHOR(S)Susanne Mueller-Using and Henning Vöpel
PUBLISHER/DATEIntereconomics, March 2014
SUMMARY This report examines and recommends to the EU methods of providing more effective public aid as an attempt to reduce the poverty that is largely driving the EU's recent immigrant population. Mueller-Using and Vöpel analyze reasons why public aid is failing in its attempt at eradicating poverty and identifies a vicious cycle of behavior and economic stagnancy that prevents concrete changes in the lives of those living in extreme poverty. They argue that areas such as health, life expectancy, and education are major detractors from incentivizing substantial economic growth in less developed countries. For example, because those in poverty make short term economic decisions due to a shorter life expectancy, investments in education or long-term wealth may not be considered as important. This leads to businesses not investing in technology that requires a higher-skill working force because its demand and longevity is fragile. Likewise because there are few jobs requiring the investment of higher skilled labor, households may not decide to invest in higher education for their children because their time is limited. Thus, poverty is extremely difficult to alleviate generationally due to these types of constraints. Therefore, Mueller-Using and Vöpel suggest to the EU to keep these behavioral trends in mind when developing public aid policy, as it would allow for more effective use of aid, hopefully reducing immigration in the long run. Read More

Cross-Cultural Understanding
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TOPICAssessing cross-cultural skills: validation of a new measure of cross-cultural psychological capital
AUTHOR(S)Maren Dollwet and Rebecca Reichard
PUBLISHER/DATEThe International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2014
SUMMARY In light of increasing workplace diversification, today's organizations are in need of employees who can work effectively within cross-cultural settings. To assess and develop generalizable skills enabling employees to successfully interact with members of many different cultures, a new measure of cross-cultural psychological capital (PsyCap) was validated in two studies. This measure captures a state-like higher-order construct consisting of four components: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience with regard to cross-cultural interactions. The majority of the study hypotheses were supported, which provides evidence for the measure's construct validity in assessing cross-cultural skills and also demonstrates its unique value in predicting cross-cultural effectiveness. This measure of cross-cultural has important implications for assessment of employees who work internationally or within a diverse workplace.Read More
TOPICUnderstanding intra-regional variation in gender inequality in East Asia: Decomposition of cross-national differences in the gender earnings gap
AUTHOR(S)Young-Mi Kim and Sawako Shirahase
PUBLISHER/DATEInternational Sociology, January 2014
SUMMARY This paper looks at the possible reasons why the gender equality gap within the workplace differs so much between Taiwan and the countries of Japan and Korea. The study analyzed data from Japan's Social Stratification and Mobility Survey (SSM) which was also expanded to Korea and Taiwan in 2005 and worked off four possible hypotheses regarding workforce gender inequality. Examining the possibilities of differences in individual productivity, gender composition, wages, and pay structure, Kim and Shirahase found that one of the biggest factors as to why Taiwan has a smaller gender equality gap in regards to the workforce is due to the small-medium business composition of the Taiwanese market. When larger firms (as are the norm in Japan and Korea) hire and employ females, other outside factors can affect their economic standing in the long run. For example, small-medium firms tend to have more flexible hours which are beneficial to women with familial duties. In addition, they can be less susceptible to cultural or economic norms such as the strong masculine hierarchy that exists in Korea which is coupled by large firms supplying higher wages. Or the internal labor system of Japan which allows wage monopolies depending on the firm type and size. Thus even though Japan, Korea, and Taiwan operate similarly in regards to government initiatives (or lack thereof) to end wage discrimination, women in Taiwan are able to live within a smaller wage gap than their Korean and Japanese peers. Read More

Entrepreneurship & Social Enterprise
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TOPICThe Self-Employment of Men and Women: What are their Motivations?
AUTHOR(S)W. David Allen &William P. Curington
PUBLISHER/DATEJournal of Labor Research, July 2014
SUMMARY This paper manly focuses on the motivation that women have for being self- employed. The two economists clearly showed the contrast between men and women have to become entrepreneurs. They concluded from their studies that men and women appear to enter self-employment for different reasons. The women in this study express less optimism about institutional support for self-employment and seem to face greater demands on their time than men. Their motivation toward or away from self-employment appears more significantly influenced by non-pecuniary factors than that of men. Women appear motivated by the desire to create wealth when it is specifically expressed as to the benefit the family. Male self-employment does not appear motivated specifically by wealth creation, whether for the family or in general, but other pecuniary concerns appear quite influential. Female self-employment exists not only as an opportunity for one to earn income as an entrepreneur but to gain the benefits from being exempt from the stringent time constraints that can affect their household production. The study combined three modes of time allocation that can influence utility; wage work hours, self- employment hours, and non-market hours. Read More
TOPICJapanese Women Entrepreneurs: Implications for Family Firms
AUTHOR(S)Dianne H. B. Welsh, Esra Memili, Eugene Kaciak, and Miyuki Ochi
PUBLISHER/DATEJournal of Small Business Management, 2014
SUMMARY Japanese female entrepreneurs and their predominately family-owned firms are a growing economic segment in Japan. The number of entrepreneurs of both genders in Japan is proportionately very small compared to other countries. The purpose of this research is to investigate the characteristics of Japanese women entrepreneurs and their family firms and to identify barriers and resources that affect their success. Female entrepreneurs in Japan play an important role in economic growth, even though the number of women entrepreneurs is decreasing. The survey revealed that single women and married women face different barriers. Marriage was the differentiating factor in the study. The meaning of time management differs depending on whether the respondent is married. For single women, time management can be an advantage as a business owner, whereas it is more difficult in practice for married women. Some single female business owners are pleased to spend time freely; on the other hand, they feel the lack of support from family. For married women, time management generally means how they manage to balance work and family. The survey results found that family support does not mean support from their parents but from their spouse and children. From these preliminary findings, marital status affects business success. Read More

News & Article

Gener&ICT
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TOPIC1000 girls training programme: FG empowers women with ICT skills
AUTHOR(S)Ruth Olurounbi
PUBLISHER/DATENigerian Tribune, July 16, 2014
SUMMARY The Federal Government has reiterated its commitment to empowering Nigerian girls and women through its ICT gender empowerment initiatives. Minister of Communication Technology, Dr Omobola Johnson, said this at an interactive session with young women undergoing training at the Ministry's 1000 Girls ICT training program held in Abuja, on Tuesday. Johnson emphasised that the Ministry of CommTech is empowering women and girls to embrace ICT to actualise their potential and contribute to the economic development of Nigeria through various specific technology initiatives. The minister also said the 1000 girls programme is part of the federal government's GWIN programme aimed at empowering girls and women in Nigeria. "For us in ICT, this particular program is important, because when you look at the statistics there is a big gender divide in the world of ICT. And when you look at the way ICT is relevant in all sectors and beginning to take over the way things are done in everything, that gender divide in ICT means that women will be left further behind if we don't encourage them to embrace ICTs. Read More
TOPICITU, UN Women announce new global awards for outstanding work in technology for gender equality
AUTHOR(S)UNWOMEN
PUBLISHER/DATEThe Herald Zimbabwe. July 26, 2014
SUMMARY The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and UN Women are partnering to launch a new global technology award that recognizes outstanding contributions from women and men in leveraging the potential of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to promote gender equality. The annual GEM-TECH Awards will be conferred on seven winners from government, the private sector, academia and civil society at ITU's Plenipotentiary Conference, which will be held in Busan, Korea, from 20 October - 7 November. Winners will travel to Busan to accept their award and join a global celebration on 21 October promoting the power of ICTs to transform lives. The initiative comes in the wake of the disclosure of ‘diversity' figures by major tech companies, including Google, Facebook, Yahoo and LinkedIn, which reveal that, across the board, the number of women in tech jobs is well under 20 per cent, with the percentage of women in leadership roles not much better – reflecting a global lack of women coming into the ICT field. "ICTs are the most powerful tool we have ever had to make a difference to the lives of today's and tomorrow's women, and to build a more equitable world for all," said ITU Secretary-General Mr. Touré. "This new award will provide much-deserved global recognition for some of the many outstanding gender champions – both female and male – who are driving exciting, innovative and effective ICT and gender initiatives."Read More

ODA
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TOPICS. Korea to deliver 3 bln won in aid to N. Korea
AUTHOR(S)Lee Chi-dong
PUBLISHER/DATEYonhap News Agency, July 15, 2014
SUMMARY South Korea said Tuesday it will provide North Korea with humanitarian aid worth 3 billion won (US$2.9 million), apparently a conciliatory gesture amid confusing signals from the unpredictable communist neighbor. Seoul will use government funds to finance civilian groups' projects to offer assistance to North Korea in the agricultural, livestock and health-care sectors, said the unification ministry. It would mark the first time that the South spends money from state coffers to support such nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) since imposing tough sanctions on the North shortly after its deadly attack on a South Korean warship in 2010. Known as the "May 24th Measure," the sanctions ban all trade and investment with the North except for the Kaesong industrial complex. The South Korean government has also allowed humanitarian assistance by NGOs. "In accordance with the policy of providing humanitarian aid that is substantially helpful to North Korean people, the government has decided to use the South-North Cooperation Fund to finance North Korea aid projects by civilian organizations," a ministry official told reporters. The ministry handles inter-Korean ties. Under the plan, 1 billion won will be allocated for building plastic greenhouses, one billion won for constructing pediatric clinics, and the rest for the dairy industry, added the official. Some observers here say it may herald a move toward the lifting of the May 24th Measure. But ministry officials said the aid plan, which is aimed at improving the livelihoods of North Korean people, can be implemented within the framework of the May 24th Measure.Read More
TOPICKorea to boost ties with Mekong nations
AUTHOR(S)PBR
PUBLISHER/DATEYonhap News Agency, July 29, 2014
SUMMARY South Korea reached agreement with Thailand and four other Mekong region countries Tuesday to further their diplomatic and economic cooperation, Seoul's foreign ministry said. The foreign ministers of South Korea and the five countries met in Seoul to adopt a three-year action plan that calls for expanding cooperation in such areas as infrastructure, green growth, and information and communications technology, according to the ministry. It was the fourth meeting of the top diplomats from South Korea and the nations in the Mekong region -- Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. The inaugural meeting was held in 2011. Under the action plan, South Korea will install a traffic research center in the Mekong River area to help the Mekong countries better learn from South Korea's traffic policy. Seoul will also provide reforestation assistance to the five Southeast Asian nations through the Asian Forest Cooperation Organization while increasing its official development aid to the countries under the agreement. In an opening speech, South Korean Foreign Minister Yun Byung-se said increased cooperation between the sides will help boost economic growth in Asia. "The Mekong region's boundless potential combined with Korea's experience of economic development can serve not only as a locomotive for an Asian economic take-off but also as a new growth engine for the world's economy," Yun said."Read More

Cross-Cultural Understanding
1
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TOPICUnderstanding contemporary South Korea through K-pop
AUTHOR(S)Sohn Ji-young
PUBLISHER/DATEThe Korean Herald, July 14, 2014
SUMMARY Characterized by a Western sound, synchronized dance moves and a repetitive and addictive melody, and sung by well-crafted performers with a dedicated following, K-pop, or contemporary South Korean music, has become a defining aspect of modern Korean culture, gaining international recognition over the past decade. The government, media and entrepreneurs have taken a keen interest in K-pop, which has managed to bring Korean influences to various corners of the world. Its impact goes beyond the Asia-Pacific to unexpected nooks in parts of Europe, the Americas and even the Middle East. Clearly, the success of K-pop is very much real and its legacy significant, so the difficult question remains: How are we to make sense of this sudden development and outgrowth of South Korean popular culture? Sociologist John Lie, a professor of sociology and the chairman of the Center for Korean Studies at UC Berkeley, attempts to answer this question with his upcoming book "K-pop: Popular Music, Cultural Amnesia and Economic Innovation in South Korea." By discussing the preconditions and changes in South Korea that led to the development of export-oriented K-pop, Lie provides a detailed analysis of the music genre to explain the country's economic, social and cultural transformations. "I think K-pop is very interesting because it really says a lot about South Korea. If you think about all the major social and cultural changes that have happened in the last 20 years, (you can see that) K-pop really exemplifies all of that," said Lie in an interview with The Korea Herald on Wednesday.Read More
TOPICFinding common ground to build better understanding.
AUTHOR(S)Imtiyaz Yusuf
PUBLISHER/DATEThe Nation Thailand, July 26, 2014
SUMMARY With Khao Phansa and Ramadan arriving at the same time this year, it may be the perfect time to learn about shared histories and spiritual ties. This year, like every year, Buddhists and Muslims in Thailand are observing Khao Phansa - the "Buddhist Lent" - and the holy month of Ramadan. Both these occasions give people a chance to renew themselves spiritually. Yet the two communities - who live side by side - share little information about these traditions with each other. The projected formation of the Asean Socio-cultural Community - requiring "different cultures, languages and religions of the peoples of Asean to emphasise common values and adapt them to present realities, opportunities and challenges" - needs shared socio-cultural projects to make it a reality. This project of building an "Asean identity based on friendship and cooperation" needs to be undertaken by different public and private agencies, such as the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organisation and the Asean University Network. Southeast Asian communities share unique socio-cultural values and practices that prefer negotiation and compromise over confrontation, which makes them different from other world cultures. But such values and practices are being challenged and will be eroded by the rising religious nationalism and fundamentalism in the region, which is giving birth to inter-religious conflicts over ethnic and political-economic matters. Seeing these conflicts as essentially religious reveals an ignorance or unfamiliarity with political discourses rooted across the region and shaped by socio-cultural practices and ethnic narratives. Rituals are the grounds for building compassion, based upon examples set by the founders of religion, and represent socio-psychological as well as the cultural face of religions. Rituals are meant to connect the individual with the sacred - renewing life and helping us be true humans.Read More

Entrepreneurship & Social Enterprise
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TOPICZipDial CEO who left glamorous Silicon Valley for India: don't call me a woman founder
AUTHOR(S)Terence Lee
PUBLISHER/DATETech in Asia, July 17, 2014
SUMMARY Valorie Wagoner, founder of Bangalore-based startup ZipDial, is a champion of women's empowerment – just don't single her out as a female founder. "How I feel about being a woman entrepreneur is irrelevant," she says, adding that fixing problems like the lack of female students in science and engineering should be a priority in the tech world. Women's issues have been under the spotlight lately after a wave of sexual harassment allegations hit Silicon Valley. The controversies raise all sorts of questions about whether the tech industry is welcoming enough to women, and what people can do about it. While Wagoner's far away from the heat of the action, male dominance in tech is a global trend, especially in India. On Twitter, Wagoner calls herself the "only foreign lady tech CEO in India" – an anomaly within an anomaly. But she embraces that, having traded San Franciscan normcore for Indian sari a long time ago. She made the leap into India in 2008, heading strategic initiatives at mChek, a mobile payments company. "I like solving big problems," she says, echoing criticisms of how cellar dwellers in the Valley are addressing trivial needs while ignoring opportunities in emerging markets. "I don't get my kicks out of creating the next big mobile game. There are brilliant people doing that and making tons of money and that's awesome. I hope to make tons of money solving other types of problems." What exactly is she tackling? ZipDial has found footing by taking advantage of the missed call phenomenon in India, where phone users give each other missed calls as a way to communicate. It's Yo before Yo was around, and also a means to avoid hefty mobile charges. The company's insight is that consumers can use missed calls to respond to both digital ads or non-digital ads – a user could for example call a number in exchange for receiving cricket scores. Now, Wagoner wants to transform ZipDial into a Google Analytics for the offline world. "I want to help businesses get done better. I want to add value to them create jobs, and launch new products…there's so much room in emerging markets for disruption." Fundamentally, Wagoner believes that the hardest part about entrepreneurship has absolutely nothing to do with gender or being a foreigner. The pros and cons balance out. "I can't tell the right Hindi jokes, I've no idea how to keep score in a cricket match, and I don't drink the right whisky. It's harder for me as a foreigner to relate to people in India," she says. Yet, being different helps as an initial conversation starter, especially when dealing with strangers. "In practice, I do get a higher response rate when cold calling compared to Indian men, because people would wonder why an American female is speaking to them. You're gonna notice me more than an Indian man."Read More
TOPICBrighter futures: Solar lamps provide beacon of hope for female entrepreneurs
AUTHOR(S)Sameer Mandhro
PUBLISHER/DATEThe Express Tribune, July 18, 2014
SUMMARY The one-room wooden house, which she inhabits with her parents and her three children, does not have a door and looks like it won't survive another rainy season. Her total material assets constitute a buffalo, a goat, a pet dog and around one dozen birds. At one end of the courtyard lies a pile of wood meant for the construction of a new house. She hopes to start building it after Eidul Fitr. Fatima's village, Soomar Tandai is located around 15 kilometres away from Sujawal city. She belongs to a classic Sindhi clan – where women actively partake in social and economic activities, bearing in mind that ‘social norms' are not disturbed. "We [women] are well capable of doing men's jobs," she says proudly. Fatima looks after her two sons, a daughter and her aged parents who she lives with. Her husband, who has not worked ever since she can remember, visits her once every few years. Fatima's day starts when it is still dark. In a society where most men laze around at tea stalls, watch movies and waste their time in pointless conversation, Fatima takes great care to use each minute efficiently. "I am not interested in TV dramas," she waves away. "What will they help me achieve?" she questions. What is even more surprising is that except for a few days of training, she has never been inside a classroom. Fatima can recognise some digits now but cannot read or write. Her strength, however, lies in her managerial and entrepreneurship skills. Around two months ago, Fatima participated in the entrepreneurship training organised by Shell Tameer in Sujawal. On her last day of training, she was presented with a low-cost solar lamp, which she sold for Rs1,000 within an hour. "The training was the turning point in my life," she reminisces happily.Read More
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