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Latest News

APWINC successfully finished the 2nd year of its 3-year "Economic Empowerment for African Rural Women" training program, This year's 15 participants, hailing from Uganda, Mozambique, Ethiopia and Rwanda, participated the training program from April 15 to May 2, 2014. The 18-day training program aimed to provide an opportunity to obtain critical knowledge and practical skills in order to build a foundation for the future economy of Africa's rural women.
In this year's APEC Women and the Economy Forum, Director Yunkem Chang gave a presentation on "Women and Green Development". Held in Beijing, China from May 21 to May 23, 2014, the director also took part in the Women's Business and Smart Technology Seminar co-organized by APWINC, the Korean Women Entrepreneurs Association (KWEA), and the Global Women's ICT Network (GWIN). The seminar was hosted by the Korean Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (MOGEF) of Republic of Korea (ROK) in cooperation with the All-China Women's Federation and over 150 attendees participated, sharing ideas of empowering women through the use of Smart Technology.
APWINC's "Global Leadership and Networking" course for the 2014 Spring semester successfully finished on June 18, 2014. The two honorary professors, Egypt's Nehal Selim and Indonesia's Alexandra M. Prasetio gave students lectures on the history, society, and culture of their native countries. Professor Selim and Professor Prasetio are the wives of Egypt's and Indonesia's current ambassadors to Korea.
As part of the "Innovative Strategies for Andean Women's Participation in Digital Economy" program, the Training of Trainer (TOT) was successfully completed in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. From June 16, 2014 to June 21, 2014, General Manager Dr. Kyungmi Kim and Head of International Cooperation Division Haley Hyun visited Ecuador to facilitate the project.

Upcoming News

Innovative Strategies for Andean Women's Participation in Digital Economy

Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador are going to continue their Training Replica throughout July. The beneficiaries of the Training Replica are local women and infocentro trainers in each country who will have the opportunity to empower their capacity by participating in e-business.


Reports & Papers

TOPICConstraints of ICT in Lifelong Learning on Disadvantaged Women
AUTHOR(S)David Hallberg, Henrik Hansson, Anders G. Nilsson
SUMMARY Hallberg, Hansson, and Nilsson explore the gendered economic and social constraints that affect ICT access and use amongst disadvantaged women in rural areas. Comparing data collected from Community Resource Centers (CRC) in Kenya, Bolivia, Cameroon, and Sri Lanka, findings suggest that a variety of stressors, such as language barriers, social relations, and external factors can affect women's propensity for accessing ICTs at CRCs as a place for lifelong learning and gender equality. The authors found that although ICTs cannot directly change established cultural ideas of gender, the roles of CRCs can potentially be an equalizing force regarding domestic issues and self-esteem. More importantly, donors must realize that injustice and inequality cannot be eradicated by technology alone, but with the combined effort to changing gendered structures themselves.Read More
TOPICShe called, she Googled, she knew: girls' secondary education, interrupted school attendance, and educational use of mobile phones in Nairobi
AUTHOR(S)Ronda Zelezny-Green
PUBLISHER/DATEGender & Development. March 19, 2014
SUMMARY This paper explores the possible impacts of mobile phones in supplementing female school attendance in Nairobi, Kenya. Zelezny-Green identified that as Kenyan female students get older; their school attendance statistically suffers due to socioeconomic constraints, causing students to fall behind in their education. Since mobile phone ownership and access are increasing within Kenya, the author studied the effects of mobile access as a tool for education and communication by surveying and conducting focus-group discussions at a local girls' school. She found that students with mobile phones which had access to the internet, could use them to gain information from other students about what they had missed in class, as well as communicate to their teachers reasons for their absence. Thus, Zelezny-Green recommended for governments to look into the feasibility of spreading mobile access and use when pursuing female educational goals, as mobile phones and their internet access are more cost-effective and cheaper than other proposed endeavors, such as laptops.Read More

TOPICA global partnership for development and other unfulfilled promises of the millennium project
AUTHOR(S)Meredeth Turshena
PUBLISHER/DATEThird World Quarterly. May 15, 2014
SUMMARY Meredith Turshena returns to the policies of the 2000 United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) and analyzes their effectiveness in making real developmental change by their proposed 2015 due date. Turshena argues that despite the support of 190 countries at the time, there was no concrete framework to equalize the power relations between the global North and South. She argues that although the 8th MDG aimed "to develop a global partnership for development and [to] develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system", the conditions placed on receiving ODA and other forms of aid kept developing countries in a biased cycle of debt. This is explicitly seen in the implementation of the 6th target, which strived 'in cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, [to] provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries' and essentially created dependence on imported medications. By having global financial policies that destroy burgeoning small economies (such as Nigeria's pharmaceutical industry), these MDG policies prevented substantial economic growth on the local level, preventing governments from ever building up the economic independence needed to uphold substantial change.Read More
TOPICMutual Priority and Aid Effectiveness: Is South Korea a Major Donor to its Major Recipients?
AUTHOR(S)Jinhwan Oh
PUBLISHER/DATEPacific Focus: Inha Journal of International Studies. April 1, 2014
SUMMARY inhwan Oh here studies the history of South Korea's ODA involvement, both as a major aid recipient in the 1940s through 1980s, and as a current aid donor from 1987 onwards. He argues that historically the most successful ODA policies seem to involve only a clear few donors giving to a receiving country. Foreign aid initiatives, such as the United States' European Marshall Plan and its major donor support of the massive development of Taiwan, were predominantly successful because major donor countries could have greater control over development aid usage, while receiving countries have to deal less with aid-fragmentation and a proliferation of aid channels. South Korea also greatly benefited from this strategy as the majority of its aid came from the United States and Japan, allowing for rapid infrastructure development. However, as a donor South Korea has become a 'minor donor for its major recipients', due to the fact that it donates so much of its small ODA budget across a broad spectrum of countries. For example, as of 2010 KOICA had 26 'priority partner countries' and is only a top donor in a select few. Thus, Oh suggests that South Korea should concentrate on fewer countries than its current 26, and become a significant donor in some of them, focusing on the sectors that it has an advantage in. This will allow them to have significant developmental impact in the select few countries, and prevent aid-fragmentation.Read More

Cross-Cultural Understanding
TOPICAffect and Morality: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Moral Attribution
AUTHOR(S)Sieun An & David Trafimow
PUBLISHER/DATEJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, April 2014
SUMMARY Principles of attribution do not always apply equally in all cultures. In the present research, we use the Kantian approach of perfect and imperfect duty violations to assess how attributions are made in the United States and Korea. Perfect duties are actions that moral people are required to do, whereas imperfect duties, although not required, are actions expected of moral people. In Experiment 1, the paper assessed whether there were cross-cultural differences in response to perfect and imperfect duty violations. In Experiment 2, the paper explored the mediating role of affect in these differences. In Experiment 3, the paper manipulated affects to test alternative explanations for the results of Experiment 2. Results show that the process of making moral attributions differs between Americans and Koreans, and this difference is due to Koreans requiring comparatively more negative affect before making a moral attribution. Implications for cross-cultural research are discussed.Read More
TOPICGender and digital usage inequality among adolescents: A comparative study of 39 countries
AUTHOR(S)Tomasz Drabowicz
PUBLISHER/DATEComputers & Education. May 2014
SUMMARY This paper researches how gender affects young adults within the realm of ICT access. Using data collected from 39 countries by the Program for International Student Assessment's study conducted in 2006, results from the analysis report that there is still a gender bias towards boys in ICT, as in all of the countries in the study depicted boys were using ICTs such as computers more that girls across most purposes (education, entertainment, communication, etc.) In fact, the more gender neutral the society, the wider the gap negatively impacting females regarding educational ICT use. Drabowicz suggests however that this could be a sign of boys needing more educational help, since studies have shown that the more gender neutral the society, the more equal girls' aptitude for math is, and girls already surpass boys in reading. In contrast, the lack of ICT use for entertainment purposes by girls, such as gaming, might be detrimental as such software exposes players to developing new cognitive skills that could help them in the long run. This has the potential to decrease the amount of women pursuing STEM fields which in turn could create a worse labor market for women in the end.Read More

Entrepreneurship & Social Enterprise
TOPICThe 'Girl Effect' and martial arts: social entrepreneurship and sport, gender and development in Uganda.
AUTHOR(S)Lyndsay M.C. Hayhurst
PUBLISHER/DATEGender, Place & Culture. April 2014
SUMMARY In this article, Hayhurst reports findings from a global ethnography on the intersection of gender, sport, and development projects such as the 'Girl Effect' campaign. Analyzing a partnership of a western transnational corporation, a western NGO, and a Ugandan NGO, the author examines how these sports focused programs of gender and development objectives incentivize Ugandan girls to become 'entrepreneurs of themselves'; that is entrepreneurs of their gained skills in sports. Hayhurst uses the example of girls mastering martial arts and teaching to other students (and thus, creating income) as a way to create economic independence while fighting sexual violence and gaining self-agency. She also argues that by having local NGOs focus on gender and development objectives local communities can eventually decrease and eliminate their dependency on foreign aid and instruction.Read More
TOPICBusiness training and female enterprise start-up, growth, and dynamics: Experimental evidence from Sri Lanka
AUTHOR(S)Suresh de Mela, David McKenzieb, Christopher Woodruffc
PUBLISHER/DATEJournal of Development Economics. January 2014
SUMMARY This study examines the effect of business training to both burgeoning and ongoing female enterprises in Sri Lanka. As self-employment through business is a main form of female employment in developing countries, focusing on female enterprise is a smart way to pursue women's economic empowerment. However, most female-owned businesses are often small businesses with limited income. Thus the authors wanted to examine whether skill training, would be able to improve the income of self-employed women. Using a sample of women from Sri Lanka who were either in the midst of or thinking of beginning their business, training was giving to two groups and one was provided a grant. Tracking the businesses' progress over two years, the study found that for women who already owned businesses, training had no significant effect on their profitability. Even with a grant, the initial positive impact of eight months disappears within the second year. In contrast, business training of new owners not only quickens entry, but increases profitability. Therefore, training courses such as 'Start-and-Improve Your Business' might better be aimed towards new owners than current ones in improving economic standing.Read More

News & Article

TOPICHow Google is trying to get women into tech industry
AUTHOR(S)Associated Press
PUBLISHER/DATEthe Times of India. June 20, 2014
SUMMARY Diana Navarro loves to code, and she's not afraid to admit it. But the 18-year-old Rutgers University computer science major knows she's an anomaly: Writing software to run computer programmes in 2014 is - more than ever - a man's world. "We live in a culture where we're dissuaded to do things that are technical," Navarro said. "Younger girls see men, not women, doing all the techie stuff, programming and computer science." Less than 1% of high school girls think of computer science as part of their future, even though it's one of the fastest-growing fields in the US today with a projected 4.2 million jobs by 2020, according to the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics. This week Google, with a driverless car and web-surfing eyeglasses under its belt, has given Associated Press an early look at how it's trying to change the gender disparity in its own workforce, and in the pipeline of potential workers, by launching a campaign called 'Made with Code'. National Center for Women & Information Technology CEO Lucy Sanders, a leading advocate for women in computer sciences, sees the Made With Code initiative as a pivotal moment in what has been a long-term challenge of getting more girl geeks growing up in America. "It used to be that as a computing community we didn't really talk about gender issues. But now we're really pulling together, from corporations and startups to nonprofits and universities," Sanders said. "I'm very optimistic." Read More
TOPICICTs bring hope to rural women
AUTHOR(S)Ruth Butaumocho
PUBLISHER/DATEThe Herald Zimbabwe. June 26, 2014
SUMMARY Thirty-year-old Mrs Grace Rukuni of Musvaire Village in Mutoko picks up her phone to read a message that has just popped up on her phone. "Mangwana, ndimi mune jana rekudiridza muriwo kumagadheni," ("Tomorrow is your turn to water the garden"), read the message from her WhatsApp group Madam's Channel, made up of members from their market garden project. She smiles, tucks her handset in her apron, and continues with her ironing. Her phone has become a very important communication gadget always stuck around her neck. It has become her link with friends, relatives and above all the markets in Harare. She can easily inquire what is selling and not on the Mbare vegetable market and other markets. Indeed information communication technologies have become a mainstay of development giving hope to previously marginalised communities, who had no other means of accessing information. By just a click of a button, women across Zimbabwe and the region are now able to influence their destinies, choose who to do business with and look for other opportunities across the region. For women who have embraced technology, they say it has made it easier to conduct business within the confines of their homes and at their convenience. They actually can multi-task while doing house chores, and they receive and send money and orders to their clients.Read More

TOPICKorean troops bid adieu to Afghanistan
AUTHOR(S)Shin Hyon-hee
PUBLISHER/DATEThe Korea Herald. June 24, 2014
SUMMARY Full of vigor yet penniless, Faisal Safi appeared doomed to live a life without a future when he joined a Korean vocational training center in his home province of Parwan in 2010 at age 20. One year of electrician training there "completely changed" his life, he said, enabling him to not only support his family but also open up opportunities. Now at 24, the soft-spoken man nurtures pupils at the academy located in the largest U.S. military base Afghanistan. The facility is one of the lasting legacies left by Korea's Provincial Reconstruction Team that officially marked the end of its four-year mission in Afghanistan on Monday. Since its 2010 inception in Charikar, it has set up schools and training centers for police and youth, hospitals, bridges and farms, while advising municipal government officials on a regular basis until the base was handed over to the Afghan government two years later. "There is nothing like it in the country," said Karen Decker, senior civilian representative to the U.S.-led International Security Assistance Force's Regional Command-East, referring to the training center. "If we could replicate that across the country, it would be tremendous because what Afghanistan needs now is to make up the knowledge gap that 30 years of war has left them with.Read More
TOPICPark returns home from Central Asia trip
AUTHOR(S)Kim Young-jin
PUBLISHER/DATEKorea Times. June 22, 2014
SUMMARY President Park Geun-hye returned home Saturday from a three-nation trip to Central Asia focused mainly on expanding economic ties and winning support for her vision to tie Eurasian nations together through infrastructure development and trade. The six-day trip to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan led to the signing of a series of agreements calling for closer cooperation on major economic projects currently under way as well as new projects in areas ranging from energy and power to infrastructure and agriculture. Park's visit to Central Asia came eight months after she proposed the "Eurasia initiative" as a key part of her administration's foreign policy agenda. The initiative calls for building more infrastructure and freeing up trade between Eurasian nations to create what could become a large single market rivaling the European Union.Read More

Cross-Cultural Understanding
TOPICWhy Successful Leaders Acknowledge Cultural Differences
AUTHOR(S)Roger Trapp
PUBLISHER/DATEForbes. June 30, 2014
SUMMARY In a world where even the most far-flung places show the movies we see in Britain and the United States, where the same - mainly western - music pours from radios and personal devices and where, thanks to the reach of the internet, English is arguably more dominant than it ever was before it is easy to assume that cultural differences are a thing of the past. Or at least not important. But, according to Erin Meyer, a professor at the international business school INSEAD, this is a grave mistake. Her view - as set out in the recently-published book The Culture Map (Public Affairs) - is that in age of globalization, acknowledging - and understanding - cultural differences is more important than ever. This is particularly true for leaders, she argues. "Leaders have always needed to understand human nature and personality differences - that's nothing new," she writes. "What's new is the requirement for twenty-first century leaders to be prepared to understand a wider, richer array of work styles than ever before and to be able to determine what aspects of an interaction are simply a result of personality and which are a result of differences in cultural perspective." Meyer does not pretend that developing this understanding is easy. "It's really complex," she said in a recent interview. However, she insists that trying to pretend that the environment in which people grow up in does not have a profound impact upon how they see the world is to risk all kinds of unnecessary misunderstandings that can, of course, have serious repercussions for business.Read More
TOPICTo combat gender bias, break the mold.
AUTHOR(S)Lisa Wirthman
PUBLISHER/DATEDenver Post, June 27, 2014
SUMMARY First, women were told to lean in. Now research shows that it may better to lean out: Women who negotiate are penalized when they do so, losing out on both jobs and promotions. In multiple studies, Hannah Riley Bowles, director of Harvard's Women and Power program, consistently found that people don't want to work with women who assert themselves - especially in salary negotiations, according to The New Yorker. But whether they lean in or lean out, expecting women to act more like men is a no-win situation. That's why women who have reached the top in male-dominated fields have another suggestion: change the playing field. "One of the things we need to do is change the societal paradigm about women and what they can do," said Ann Drake, chairman and CEO of DSC Logistics. She spoke on a panel called "Girls and Women: What's Working in America," at the Clinton Global Initiative in Denver last week. "We have these culturally ingrained ideas about what we consider attractive or appropriate, ideas of what's OK for men or women. And when women violate it, people have an aversive response," Bowles told The New Yorker. As a result, gender discrimination has become harder to identify - and more difficult to change.Read More

Entrepreneurship & Social Enterprise
TOPICFemale Entrepreneurs to Participate in Regional Cooperation
AUTHOR(S)Sophia Zhu
PUBLISHER/DATEAll-China Women's Federation, June 27, 2014
SUMMARY Due to the rapid development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province, and the pace of integration, female entrepreneurs in these areas are now willing to actively participate in a collaboration. Tianjin Women Entrepreneurs Association held their fourth General Assembly on June 25. The meeting examined and adopted the work report and the "Articles of Association of Women Entrepreneurs in Tianjin," and elected the Tianjin Fourth Council of the Association of Women Entrepreneurs. During the meeting, Beijing, Tianjin and three associations of women entrepreneurs sought to thoroughly implement the Beijing, Tianjin and Heibei Province collaborative development strategy, a joint initiative of the three women entrepreneurs, and signed the "Women Entrepreneurs Association of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei letters of intent" Agreement. The move aims to combine the three regions' women entrepreneurs respectively with the advantages of modern industrial division, to build an efficient communications platform for member companies to strengthen economic exchanges and cooperation and to promote resource integration and industrial docking. It also encourages women to participate in social welfare undertakings, to assume social responsibility, and jointly promote development.Read More
TOPICYoung women raise big bucks for startups
AUTHOR(S)Contessa Gayles
PUBLISHER/DATECNNTech. June 24, 2014
SUMMARY At age 17, Brienne Ghafourifar achieved a world record. She became the youngest college graduate to raise $1 million in venture funding for her business. "I usually don't talk about that," Ghafourifar, now 19, says with a nervous laugh, hesitating to brag about her achievement. "I usually let my brother talk about that for me." Immediately after graduating from Santa Clara University with a bachelor's degree in economics, Ghafourifar founded her first startup, Entefy, with her older brother Alston. The cross-device platform aims to aggregate and house all of your disparate forms of electronic communications -- texts, emails, IMs, etc. -- onto one interface. Entefy has garnered $4.1 million in investments and is currently in development, with a private beta expected by the end of 2014. Ghafourifar's journey as a young, female tech entrepreneur launching her career in Silicon Valley is one of four stories chronicled in the upcoming documentary film, She Started It.Read More
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